一条橘子皮

NASA 搬运 D62
(卖力旋转的天王星大大)
How did Uranus get tilted so much that it spins on its side? This question has made many a scientist wonder. New research looking back at the planet’s early formation points to a young proto-planet of rock and ice colliding with Uranus, causing its extreme tilt. Instead of rotating like a top spinning nearly upright, as Earth does, the planet “rolls” on its side as it circles the Sun.
天王星是如何倾斜的,以至于它在侧面旋转?这个问题让很多科学家感到奇怪。回顾这个星球早期形成的新研究指向一个年轻的岩石和冰与天王星碰撞的原始行星,导致其极端倾斜。与地球一样,顶部旋转几乎直立旋转,而不是旋转,就像环绕着太阳一样,行星在其侧面“滚动”。

While it is the butt of many jokes, Uranus is actually a fascinating world to study. It is about four times wider than Earth orbiting our Sun at a distance of about 1.8 billion miles (2.9 billion kilometers). Uranus takes about 17 hours to rotate once (a Uranian day), and about 84 Earth years to complete an orbit of the Sun (a Uranian year). Uranus has 27 known moons, and they are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. With 13 known rings, we've seen that the inner rings are narrow and dark and the outer rings are brightly colored.
虽然它是一个烂笑话,但天王星实际上是一个迷人的世界。它比地球绕地球轨道宽约四倍宽,距离大约18亿英里(29亿公里)。天王星需要大约17个小时旋转一次(一个天王星日),大约84个地球年完成一个太阳轨道(一个天王星年)。天王星有27个已知的卫星,它们以威廉·莎士比亚和亚历山大·波普的作品中的人物命名。有13个已知的环,我们已经看到内环是窄而暗的,外环是明亮的颜色。

This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with the @NASAHubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer.
这张假彩色图像是由Erich Karkoschka使用1998年8月8日采用@NASAHubble太空望远镜的近红外相机和多物体光谱仪拍摄的数据生成的。

Source: NASA/JPL/STScI
#nasa #space #solarsystem #uranus #hubble#picoftheday #colors #planet #planets #rings #spothubble#pictureoftheday

NASA搬运D61
(生于璀璨!)
Celestial Fireworks! 🌟 Like a Fourth of July fireworks display, this glittering collection of stars located 20,000 light-years away from Earth looks like a red, white & blue aerial burst.
天体烟花! 🌟就像7月4日的烟火表演一样,这个闪闪发光的星星系列距离地球2万光年,看起来像是红色,白色和蓝色的空中烟花。

Spotted in 2009 by our @NASAHubble Space Telescope as colorful and serene sight, this environment is anything but that! Ultraviolet radiation and violent stellar winds have blown out an enormous cavity in the gas and dust enveloping the cluster of huge, hot stars. Most of the stars in the cluster were born around the same time but differ in size, mass, temperature and color.
我们的@NASAHubble太空望远镜在2009年发现了色彩缤纷,宁静的景象,这个环境就是这样!紫外线辐射和猛烈的恒星风吹起了巨大的空气,包围着巨大的热星团。群集中的大多数恒星大约在同一时间出生,但大小,质量,温度和颜色不同。

The course of a star's life is determined by its mass, so a cluster of a given age will contain stars in various stages of their lives, giving an opportunity for detailed analyses of stellar life cycles. The cluster seen here contains some of the most massive stars known. These huge stars live fast and die young, burning through their hydrogen fuel quickly and ultimately ending their lives in supernova explosions.
恒星生命的过程取决于它的质量,因此一个特定年龄的星团将包含生命各个阶段的恒星,为详细分析恒星生命周期提供了机会。这里看到的星团包含一些已知的最大质量恒星。这些巨大的恒星快速生存并且年轻时死亡,迅速燃烧氢燃料并最终以超新星爆炸结束生命。

Star clusters provide astronomers with important clues to understand the origin of massive star formation in the early, distant universe.
星团为天文学家提供了重要的线索,可以了解早期遥远宇宙中大质量恒星形成的起源。

Credit: NASA/@EuropeanSpaceAgency/@NASAHubble

#nasa #fourthofjuly #4thofjuly #redwhiteblue #america#space #solarsystem #stars #fireworks #astronomy#hubble

NASA 搬运D60

Out of a sea of silver sparkles from nearby stars, a ripple of bright blue gas threads through this galaxy like a misshapen lake. A keen eye can also spot a few other galaxies that, while masquerading as stars at first glance, reveal their true nature on closer inspection of this image from the Hubble Space Telescope (@NASAHubble). The central galaxy streaked with color was discovered by DeLisle Stewart in 1900 and is located approximately 28 million light-years away. It contains an active galactic nucleus: an extremely luminous central region so alight with radiation that it can outshine the rest of the galaxy put together.
在附近恒星闪闪发光的海洋中,一道明亮的蓝色气体像一个畸形的湖水穿过这个星系。敏锐的眼睛还可以发现其他一些星系,虽然第一眼看上像星星,但通过仔细观察哈勃太空望远镜(@NASAHubble)的这幅图像,可以发现它们的真实本质。 1900年,DeLisle Stewart发现了带有颜色斑点的中央星系,距离大约2800万光年远。它包含一个活跃的银河核心:一个非常明亮的中心区域,因此可以放射线照射,可以将星系的其余部分放在一起。

This galaxy has been imaged by Hubble for several studies of nearby active galaxies. By using Hubble to explore the small-scale structures of active galaxies in nearby galaxies, astronomers can observe the traces of collisions and mergers, central galactic bars, nuclear starbursts, jets or outflows, and other interactions between a galactic nucleus and its surrounding environment. Images such as this can help astronomers understand more about the true nature of the galaxies we see throughout the cosmos.
这个星系已经由哈勃望远镜对附近活动星系的几项研究成像。通过使用哈勃来探索附近星系中活动星系的小尺度结构,天文学家可以观察碰撞和合并,中央星系条,核星爆,射流或流出以及银河核与周围环境之间的其他相互作用。像这样的图像可以帮助天文学家更多地了解我们在整个宇宙中看到的星系的真实性质。

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA
#nasa #space #hubble #spothubble #solarsystem#universe #galaxy #stars #blue #silver #science#pictureoftheday #beautiful #light #astronomy#picoftheday

NASA 搬运D59

SPOTTED: Astronomers discovered a special kind of neutron star for the first time outside of the Milky Way galaxy! ⭐️ Neutron stars like this one spotted by our @nasachandraxray telescope are formed when a massive star runs out of fuel and collapses. The very central region of the star – the core – collapses, crushing together every proton and electron into a neutron. If the core of the collapsing star is between about 1 and 3 solar masses, these newly-created neutrons can stop the collapse, leaving behind a neutron star.Since neutron stars began their existence as stars, they are found scattered throughout the galaxy in the same places where we find stars. And like stars, they can be found by themselves or in binary systems with a companion. Our data suggests that this neutron star is a rare variety that has both a low magnetic field and no stellar companion. Future observations at X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths will help astronomers learn more about how this neutron star ended up in its current position outside our galaxy.
SPOTTED:天文学家第一次在银河系外发现了一种特殊的中子星! 当我们的@nasachandraxray望远镜发现时,这样的中子星是由一颗巨大的恒星用完燃料并坍塌形成了。恒星的中心区域 - 核心 - 坍塌,将每个质子和电子压缩成一个中子。如果坍缩恒星的核心在大约1到3个太阳质量之间,那么这些新生成的中子可以阻止坍塌,留下一颗中子星。中子星以恒星的形式开始存在,它们被发现分散在整个星系中在我们找到星星的地方夜可以找到它们。和星星一样,它们可以通过它们自己或与同伴一起在二进制系统中找到。我们的数据表明,这颗中子星是一种罕见的品种,同时具有低磁场和无其他恒星的伴侣。未来通过X射线、光学和无线电波段的观测将有助于天文学家更多地了解这颗中子星如何在我们银河系外的当前位置结束。
Credit: NASA/European Southern Observatory

#nasa #space #milkyway #supernova #star #outerspace#telescope #pictureoftheday #astronomy #science#universe #solarsystem #galaxy

NASA 每日搬运 D58

nasaAlthough beautiful, this image from the Hubble Space Telescope (@NASAHubble) does not do justice to this galaxy’s true appeal: it is actually a spectacular spiral galaxy! From Earth, the galaxy’s vast disk of gas, dust and stars is seen nearly edge-on, flat like a pancake.
哈勃太空望远镜(@NASAHubble)的这张照片虽然很美,但并不符合这个星系真正的吸引力:它实际上是一个壮观的螺旋星系!从地球上看,星系的巨大气体,尘埃和星星几乎就是在边缘上的,像扁饼一样平坦。

Located about a hundred million light-years away in the constellation Cetus (the Sea Monster), this spiral galaxy is not the only one seen here. A handful of other galaxies can be seen lurking in the background, scattered around the narrow strip the main galaxy. Many are oriented face-on or at tilted angles, showing off their glamorous spiral arms and bright cores. Such orientations provide a wealth of detail about the arms and their nuclei, but fully understanding a galaxy’s three-dimensional structure also requires an edge-on view. This gives astronomers an overall idea of how stars are distributed throughout the galaxy and allows them to measure the “height” of the disk and the bright star-studded core.
位于Cetus(海怪)星座约一亿光年远的地方,这里并不是唯一一个这样的旋涡星系。其他一些星系可以在背景中潜伏,散布在主要星系的狭长条带周围。许多是水平面对面或倾斜角度,展现他们迷人的螺旋臂和明亮的核心。这种分布提供了有关旋臂及其原子核的丰富细节,但充分了解星系的三维结构也需要在边缘观察。这给了天文学家一个关于恒星如何分布于整个星系的整体概念,并允许他们测量光盘的“高度”和明亮星光璀璨的核心。

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA
#nasa #space #hubble #spothubble #galaxy #universe#solarsystem #bright #stars #lightyears #science#pictureoftheday #spiral #flat #galaxies #picoftheday

NASA 搬运 D56
(阿 加班加成狗 我的星星们啊)

Today, on the other side of the globe, an astronomy experiment to study how stars are born took flight.
To the casual onlooker, the space between the stars is benign and quiet. But, vast clouds of neutral atoms and molecules, as well as charged plasma particles drift in this area called the interstellar medium — that may, over millions of years, evolve into new stars and even planets. These clouds have very low densities and the only way to study them is to measure how a cloud is affected by a star — and its associated outpouring of stellar material, the stellar wind — moving through it. This afternoon at 12:47 p.m. EDT, the fourth iteration of our Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS-4) mission lifted off from the Kwajalein Atoll in The Republic of the Marshall Islands aboard a Black Brant IX research rocket to study these floating interstellar reservoirs and the earliest stages of star formation.
The CHESS-4 instrument was developed by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
Credit: NASA

今天,在地球的另一边,一个研究星星如何诞生的天文学实验已经开始了。
对于临时的旁观者来说,星星之间的空间是温和而安静的。但是,中性原子和分子的巨大云层以及荷电等离子体粒子在这个被称为星际介质的区域漂移 - 这可能在数百万年后演变成新的恒星甚至行星。这些云的密度非常低,研究它们的唯一方法就是测量一颗恒星如何受云影响 - 以及与恒星相关的恒星风的流动 - 通过它移动。今天下午12点47分EDT,这是科罗拉多高分辨率中阶恒星光谱仪(CHESS-4)任务的第四次迭代,从马绍尔群岛共和国的夸贾林环礁上搭载一架Black Brant IX研究火箭,研究这些漂浮星际储层和最早阶段的恒星形成。
CHESS-4仪器由科罗拉多大学博尔德分校大气与空间物理实验室开发。

#NASA #Rocket #SoundingRocket #CHESS4 #Space#Interstellar #Stars #Clouds #MilkyWay #picoftheday#liftoff #planets

NASA 每日搬运 D55

How far is the farthest star we've ever seen? More than halfway across the universe, an enormous blue star nicknamed Icarus was spotted by the Hubble Space Telescope (@NASAHubble) through a quirk of nature that amplified the star's feeble glow. The star, harbored in a very distant spiral galaxy, is so far away that its light has taken 9 billion years to reach Earth. It appears to us as it did when the universe was about 30 percent of its current age.
我们见过的最远的恒星有多远?哈勃太空望远镜(@NASAHubble)发现了一颗绰号伊卡洛斯(Icarus)的巨大蓝星,这颗恒星远远超过了宇宙的一半,它通过奇特的自然现象加深了这颗恒星的微弱光芒。这颗恒星位于一个非常遥远的旋涡星系中,距离它的距离太远,以至于它的光线需要90亿年才能到达地球。在我们看来,当宇宙达到目前年龄的30%时,它就是这样。
This video shows a galaxy cluster located about 5 billion light-years from Earth. This massive cluster of galaxies sits between the Earth and the galaxy that contains the distant star. Thanks to a lucky alignment between the cluster, a dense object within it and a distant star, the image of the distant star was magnified by a factor of 2000, making it visible by the Hubble Space Telescope.
这部影片展示了距离地球约50亿光年的星系团。这个巨大的星系团位于地球与包含遥远恒星的星系之间。由于星团内部密集的物体和遥远的恒星之间幸运的对准,遥远恒星的图像被放大了2000倍,使其可以被哈勃太空望远镜看到。
Like the galaxy in which the star is located, the star is actually visible several times. However, the light from the second image of the star was redirected by another massive object in the cluster and only became visible when this object moved out of the line of sight. 
The video shows the position of the two images of the star within the cluster.
就像恒星所在的星系一样,恒星实际上可以看到几次。然而,恒星的第二幅图像发出的光线被另一个巨大的物体重新定向,只有当物体移出视线时才能看到。该视频显示星团内两颗星图像的位置。
Credit: @europeanspaceagency/Hubble, NASA 
#nasa #space #hubble #spothubble #spacetelescope#telescope #galaxy #cluster #star #universe #solarsystem#lightyears #billions #visible #beautiful #earth #video#science

What’s up for April in the night sky? This month, you won’t want to miss red Mars and golden Saturn in the south-southeast sky. By April 7, the Moon joins the pair and if you’re in a dark area, you may see some glow from the nearby Milky Way.
四月在夜空中会发生什么?这个月,你不会想要错过东南南天空中的红色火星和金色土星。到4月7日,月亮加入这对,如果你在黑暗的地方,你可能会看到附近银河系的一些光芒。

Credit: NASA 
#nasa #space #mars #saturn #moon #planets #south#southeast #stargazing #astronomy #solarsystem #pair#milkyway #nightsky #whatsup #lookup #sky #stars #april

NASA 每日搬运 D53
(一个富含钙的星系 科科)
nasaThe spiral galaxy seen here by our Hubble Space Telescope (@NASAHubble) is located about 130 million light-years away and is classified as an Sc spiral galaxy. But its spiral arms - the dominating feature of spiral galaxies - are almost impossible to see, because it presents itself at an almost perfectly edge-on angle.
我们的哈勃太空望远镜(@NASAHubble)在这里看到的螺旋星系距离我们约1.3亿光年远,并被归类为Sc旋涡星系。但是它的旋臂 - 螺旋星系的主要特征 - 几乎不可能看到,因为它以几乎完美的边缘角度呈现。

Discovered by William Herschel in 1787, this galaxy was host to a fascinating and rare event in 2003. A faint supernova appeared about 8,000 light-years below the central bulge. Supernovae are the huge, violent explosions of dying stars, and the one that exploded in this galaxy - not visible in this much later image - was classified as a Type Ib/c supernova. It was particularly interesting because its spectrum showed strong signatures of calcium.
Calcium-rich supernovae are rare and hence of great interest to astronomers. Astronomers still struggle to explain these particular explosions as their existence presents a challenge to both observation and theory. In particular, their appearance outside of galaxies, their lower ompared to other supernovae, and their rapid evolution are still open questions for researchers.
这颗星系于1787年由威廉赫歇尔发现,于2003年出现了一场引人入胜的罕见事件。一颗微弱的超新星出现在中央隆起下约8000光年。超新星是垂死的恒星发生巨大而剧烈的爆炸,而在这个星系中发生爆炸的爆炸 - 在这张晚期图像中不可见 - 被归类为Ib / c型超新星。这是特别有趣的,因为它的光谱显示出钙的强烈特征。
富含钙的超新星很罕见,因此对天文学家非常感兴趣。天文学家仍然很难解释这些特殊的爆炸事件,因为它们的存在给观测和理论带来了挑战。特别是,它们在星系外的外观,与其他超新星相比较低的特征,以及它们的快速演化对于研究人员来说仍然是一个开放的问题。

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA

#nasa #space #hubble #spothubble #telescope #galaxy#supernova #lightyears #beautiful #pictureoftheday#science #astronomy

NASA 搬运工 D52
(像爷爷一样的星系 科科科)

The galaxy in this Hubble Space Telescope (@NASAHubble) image is unique in that it is considered a relic of what galaxies were like in the early universe. The galaxy is composed exclusively of aging stars that were born 10 billion years ago. But unlike other galaxies in the local universe, it has not undergone any further star formation.
这个哈勃太空望远镜(@NASAHubble)图像中的星系是独一无二的,因为它被认为是早期宇宙中星系类似的遗迹。这个星系完全由100亿年前诞生的老化恒星组成。但与当地宇宙中的其他星系不同,它没有经过任何进一步的恒星形成。
Astronomers nickname such galaxies as "red and dead," because the stars are aging and there aren't any successive generations of younger stars. The telltale sign of the galaxy's "arrested development" lies in the ancient globular clusters that swarm around it. The reddish clusters are the strongest evidence that the galaxy went out of the star-making business long ago. Otherwise, there would be a lot of blue globular star clusters, which are largely absent. The lack of blue clusters suggests that this galaxy never grew further by gobbling up surrounding galaxies.
天文学家绰号“红色和死亡”这样的星系,因为恒星老化并且没有任何存在的年轻恒星。银河系“被捕的发展”的迹象表明,古老的球状星团聚集在它周围。红色的星团是银河早就从制星业走出的最有力证据。否则,会出现很多蓝色球状星团,这些星团很大程度上都没有。蓝色星团的缺乏表明这个星系从来没有通过吞噬周围星系而进一步发展。
The galaxy lives near the center of the Perseus cluster of over 1,000 galaxies, located 240 million light-years away from Earth. This galaxy is moving so fast through the cluster, at 2 million miles per hour, that it cannot merge with other galaxies to collect stars or pull in gas to fuel star formation. In addition, near the galaxy cluster center, intergalactic gas is so hot it cannot cool to condense and form stars.
这个星系住在距离地球2.4亿光年的1000多个星系的珀尔修斯星系中心附近。这个星系正在以每小时200万英里的速度在整个星团内快速移动,以至于它不能与其他星系合并来收集恒星或拉动天然气来为恒星形成提供燃料。另外,在星系团中心附近,星系间气体非常热,不能冷却凝结和形成恒星。
Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Beasley (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias)

#nasa #space #galaxy #relic #unique #beautiful #hubble#spothubble #telescope #billion #galaxies #stars#universe #solarsystem #persus #cluster #lightyears#merge #science #ancient